Process Competence and Expert Knowledge: Educational and Psychological Counseling Service vis-a-vis kindergartens and schools

Liv Heidi Mjelve

Sammendrag


This study aims to develop knowledge of essential counseling competencies in the Educational Psychological Counseling Service (EPCS). Through semi-structured interviews with six counselors, the essential competencies of those who counsel teachers and parents are identified and discussed. Five main categories of competencies are proposed in response to the research question: What counseling competencies are considered essential during the counseling process? The results emphasize the importance of the counseling alliance, the counselor’s awareness, the counselor’s competencies in challenging and confronting the client, the counselor’s subject knowledge and enhancement of the client’s ownership of the proposed solution. Three of the categories (the counseling alliance, awareness and challenging/confronting) constitute counselors’ process competence. The two remaining categories (subject knowledge and ownership) constitute counselors’ expert knowledge. Conclusions: Process competence is heavily emphasized as essential for EPCS counselors and process competence and expert knowledge might be seen as two sides of the same coin.


Emneord (Nøkkelord)


alliance; awareness; counseling; counseling competency; counseling relationship; kindergarten; school; ownership

Fulltekst:

PDF (English)

Referanser


Act of Education. (1998). Lov om grunnskolen og den vidaregåande opplæring. Oslo: Kunnskapsdepartementet.

Bedi, R. P., Davis, M. D., & Williams, M. (2005). Critical incidents in the formation of the therapeutic alliance from the client's perspective. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 42(3), 311-323. doi:10.1037/0033-3204.42.3.311

Bjørndal, C.R.P. (2011). Hva er kvalitet i veiledning? I T. Karlsen (Ed.) Veiledning under nye vilkår (pp 32-49). Oslo: Gyldendal Akademisk.

Bjørndal, C.R.P. (2009). Konstruktive hjelpesamtaler. Oslo: Gyldendal Akademisk forlag

Bordin, E. S. (1979). The generalizability of the psychoanalytic concept of the working alliance. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, & Practice, 16, 252–260. doi:10.1037/h0085885

Bordin, E. S. (1994). Theory and research on the therapeutic working alliance: New directions. In A. O. Horvat, & L. S. Greenberg (Eds.), The working alliance: Theory, research and practice (pp. 13-37). New York: Wiley.

Cameron, D.L., Kovac, V.B., & Tveit, A.D. (2011). En undersøkelse om PP-tjenestens arbeid med barnehagen. Skriftserie nr. 155e. Kristiansand: Universitetet i Agder.

Corbin, J. & Strauss, A. (2008). Basics of Qualitative Research 3e. California: Sage Publications Inc.

Dalen, M. (2004). Intervju som forskningsmetode: En kvalitativ tilnærming. Oslo, Norway: Universitetsforlaget

Egan, G. (2014). The skilled helper. A problem-management and opportunity-development approach to helping. Belmont. Brooks/Cole Publishing.

Falender, C. A., & Shafranske, E. P. (2004). Clinical supervision: A competency-based approach. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.

Flückiger, C., Del Re, A. C., Wampold, B. E., Symonds, D., & Horvath, A. O. (2012). How central is the alliance in psychotherapy? A multilevel longitudinal meta-analysis. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 59(1), 10-17. doi:10.1037/a0025749

Fuller, S. (2006). The constitutively social character of expertise. In E. Selinger, & R. P.

Crease (Eds.), The philosophy of expertise. New York: Colombia University Press.

Gelso, C. J., Williams, E. N., & Fretz, B. R. (2014). Counseling psychology (3rd ed.).

Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.

Gold, E., & Zahm, S. (2008). The need for gestalt therapy research. In P. Brownell (Ed.), Handbook for theory, research and practice in gestalt therapy. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.

Haugstvedt, K. T., Graff-Iversen, S., Bukholm, I. R., Haugli, L., & Hallberg, U. (2013). Processes of enhanced self-understanding during a counselling programme for parents of children with disabilities. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 27, 108-116. doi:10.1111/j.1471-6712.2012.01008.x

Hays, D. G., & Wood, C. (2011). Infusing qualitative traditions in counseling research designs. Journal of Counseling & Development, 89, 288–295. doi:10.1002/j.1556-6678.2011.tb00091.x

Horvath, A. O., & Bedi, R. P. (2002). The alliance. In J. C. Norcross (Ed.), Psychotherapy relationships that work: Evidence-based responsiveness (pp. 365–372). New York: Oxfrod University Press.

Horvath, A. O., Del Re, A. C., Flückiger, C., & Symonds, D. (2011). Alliance in individual psychotherapy. Psychotherapy (Chicago, Ill.), 48, 9-16. doi:10.1037/a0022186

Hustad, B.-C., Strøm, T., & Strømsvik, C. L. (2013). Kompetanse i PP-tjenesten - Til de nye forventningene? Kartlegging av kompetansen i PP-tjenesten. NF-rapport nr. 2/2013. Bodø, Norway: Norlands Forskning [Nordland Research Institute].

Kaslow, N. J., Borden, K. A., Collins, F. L., Forrest, L., Illfelder-Kaye, J., Nelson, P. D., … & Willmuth, M. E. (2004). Competencies conference: Future directions in education and credentialing in professional psychology. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 60, 699-712. doi:10.1002/jclp.20016

Kolb, D. A. (1984). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development. New Jersey: Englewood Cliffs.

Kvale, S., & Brinkmann, S. (2009). Interviews: Learning the craft of qualitative research interviewing. Los Angeles, CA: Sage.

Ladany, N., & Inman, A. G. (2012). Training and supervision. In E. M. Altmaier & J. C. Hansen (Eds.), Oxford handbook of counseling psychotherapy (pp. 179-207). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Lassen, L. (2014). Rådgivning. Kunsten å hjelpe og sikre vekstfremmende prosesser. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget.

Lindseth, A., & Norberg, A. (2004). A phenomenological hermeneutical method for researching lived experience. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 18, 145-153. doi:10.1111/j.1471-6712.2004.00258.x

NESH. (2006). Forskningsetiske retningslinjer for samfunnsvitenskap, humanoria, juss og teologi. Oslo: De nasjonale forskningsetiske komiteer.

Nissen-Lie, H. A., Havik, O. E., Høglend, P. A., Monsen, J. T., & Rønnestad, M. H. (2013). The contribution of the quality of therapists’ personal lives to the development of the working alliance. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 60(4), 483-495. doi:10.1037/a0033643

Nordcross, J. C., & Lambert, M. J. (2011). Evidence-based therapy relationships. In J. C.

Nordcross (Ed.), Psychotherapy relationships that work: Empirically-based responsiveness (2nd ed, pp. 3-21). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Orlinsky, D. E., Grawe, K., & Parks, B. K. (1994). Process and outcome in psychotherapy - Noch einmal. In A. E. Bergin, & S. L. Garfield (Eds.), Handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change. New York: Wiley.

Orlinsky, D. E., Rønnestad, M. H., & Willutzki, U. (2004). Fifty years of psychotherapy process-outcome research: Continuity and change. In M. J. Lambert (Ed.), Bergin and Garfield's handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change (5th ed) (pp. 307-389). New York: Wiley.

Perls, F., Hefferline, R. F., & Goodman, P. (1994). Gestalt therapy: Excitement and growth in the human personality. Gouldsboro, ME: Highland Gestalt Journal Press.

Råbu, M., Halvorsen, M. S., & Haavind, H. (2011). Early relationship struggles: A case study of alliance formation and reparation. Counselling and Psychotherapy Research, 11(1), 23-33. doi:10.1080/14733145.2011.546073

Richards, L. (2009). Handling qualitative data: A practical guide. London: Sage Publishing House.

Rønnestad, M. H. & Orlinsky, D. E. (2005). Aspects of Professional Development. In D. E. Orlinsky, & M. H. Rønnestad (Eds.), How psychotherapists develop: A study of therapeutic work and professional growth. Washington D. C.: American Psychological Association.

Rogers, C. R., Kirschenbaum, H., & Henderson, V. L. (1990). Carl Rogers: Dialogues: Conversations with Martin Buber, Paul Tillich, B.F. Skinner, Gregory Bateson, Michael Polanyi, Rollo May, and others. London, UK: Constable.

Rychen, D. S. (2009). Key competencies: Overall goals for competence development: An international and interdisciplinary perspective. In R. Maclean, & D. Wilson (Eds.), International handbook of education for the changing world of work (pp. 2571-2583). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

Schibbye, A. L. (2012). Relasjoner. Et dialektisk perspektiv på eksistensiell og psykodynamisk psykoterapi [Relatonship. A dialectic perspective at existential and psychodynamic psychotherapy]. Oslo, Norway: Universitetsforlaget.

Simon, N. S. (2009). Applying gestalt theory to coaching. Gestalt Review, 13(3), 230-240.

Usher, C. H., & Borders, L. D. (1993). Practicing counselors’ preferences for supervisory style and supervisory emphasis. Counselor Education and Supervision, 33(2), 66-79.

Watkins, Jr., C. E. (1997). Reflections on contemporary psychotherapy practice, research, and training. Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 27(1), 5-22. doi:10.1023/A:1025664512882

Wheeler, S., & Richards, K. (2007). The impact of clinical supervision on counsellors and therapists, their practice and their clients. A systematic review of the literature. Counselling and Psychotherapy Research, 7(1), 54-65. doi:10.1080/14733140601185274

Yontef, G. M., Bar-Yoseph, T. L. (2008). Dialogical Relationship. In P. Brownell (ed.), Handbook for Theory, Research, and Practice in Gestalt therapy. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15845/ntvp.v2i1.870

Opphavsrett 2017 Liv Heidi Mjelve

Creative Commons-lisens
Dette verk er lisensieret under en Creative Commons Navngivelse 4.0 Internasjonal lisens.

NORDVEI - Nordisk tidsskrift i veiledningspedagogikk

ISSN: 2535-3047


Driftet av Bergen Open Access Publishing, en tjeneste fra Universitetsbiblioteket i Bergen.