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Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
  • The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  • The submission file is in Microsoft Word, or RTF file format.
  • The text is double-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed separately at the end of the manuscript.
  • The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.

Author Guidelines

Manuscripts must not previously have been published or offered simultaneously elsewhere. All authors must have read and approved the manuscript. Submissions are done by the electronic submission system. In case of problems, please contact the editor (

Both pages and lines should be numbered consecutively. Separate pages should be used for (1) title page with name(s) and full postal and e-mail address(es) of the author(s), and a suggestion for a running head and up to five keywords, (2) abstract, (3) text, (4) references, (5) tables with headings, (6) figure legends, (7) numbered figures. The approximate position of tables and figures in the text should be indicated in the margin. The body of the article should be organized in sections labelled Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgements, and References.  

Short communications need not be subdivided into sections, but must include an abstract.

Cite each figure and table in the text. Tables and figures must be sequenced in the order cited. Use “Figure” and “Table”, not “Fig.” and “Tab.”

Dating and time, use: e.g. 20 January 2004; the 24-hour clock: e.g. 07:00 and 22:00. Proper names of birds should be capitalized, but not the English names of other organisms. Use the following abbreviations: s (second), min (minute), h (hour), designate temperature as °C. Do not abbreviate day, week, month, year.

Use the following statistical abbreviations: ANOVA, SD, SE, df, CV, ns, n, p, r, rs, F, G, t-test, U-test. Write out numbers one to nine except for measurements (e.g. three birds, 4 mm, 5 min, 10 days). Use 30% instead of 30 percent.

Each reference cited in the text must be listed in the References section, and vice versa.

Cite literature in text as follows:

  • One author: Haftorn (1971) or (Haftorn 1971).
  • Two authors: Haftorn and Hailman (1990) or (Haftorn & Hailman 1990).
  • Three or more authors: Aarvak et al. (1996) or (Aarvak et al. 1996).
  • Work where author(s) name(s) and year are identical should be placed in the order when first mentioned in the text (e.g. 1990a, 1990b).
  • Manuscripts that are accepted for publication but not yet published: Mortensen (in press) or Mortensen (2007) if date known.
  • Unpublished materials: (Mortensen unpubl. data), (Mortensen pers. obs.), Mortensen  pers. comm.). Cite references in alphabetical order by first author’s name. References by a single author precede multiauthored works by same author, regardless of date.   

Citations should follow formats below 


Drent RH & Daan S. 1980. The prudent parent: energetic adjustments in avian breeding. Ardea 68: 225–252
Haftorn S. 1992. Ontogeny of food storing in titmice Parus spp. Ibis 134: 69–71.
Hågvar S, Hågvar G & Mjønness E. 1990. Nest site selection in Norwegian woodpeckers. Holarctic Ecology 13: 156–165.
Heggland A. 2004. Karakteristika ved to territorier for hvitryggspett Dendrocopos leucotos i Telemark. Ornis Norvegica 27: 80–85. (In Norwegian, with English summary)

Books, chapters, dissertations

Haftorn S. 1971. Norges fugler. Universitetsforlaget, Oslo. (In Norwegian)
Stenberg I. 1994. Hvitryggspett Dendrocopos leucotos. Pp. 306–307 in: Gjershaug JO., Thingstad PG, Eldøy S & Byrkjeland S. (Eds.). Norsk fugleatlas. Norsk Ornitologisk Forening, Klæbu. (In Norwegian)
Stenberg I. 1998. Habitat selection, reproduction and survival in the White-backed Woodpecker Dendrocopos leucotos. Ph.D. thesis, NTNU Trondheim.  


Each table must start on a separate sheet, have a legend above it, and be intelligible without recourse to the text. Do not use vertical lines in tables.


Type legends in paragraph form separate from the figures themselves. Do not include lines, dots, triangles, etc. in figure legends, label them in figure or refer to them by name in legend.
All figures and photographs should be submitted with a resolution of 300 dpi.


A pdf file will be sent to the author for approval.     

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