View of Refashioning Italian Theatrical and Dramatic Conventions: Prologues, Epilogues and Inductions in Early Modern English Drama
Cioni_Refashioning

Refashioning Italian Theatrical and Dramatic Conventions: Prologues, Epilogues and Inductions in Early Modern English Drama

Fernando Cioni , University of Florence

Elizabethan drama used a variety of introductory scenes which can be defined as inductions,[1] provided that we distinguish their dramatic and theatrical functions. In the theatre, the induction is a dramatic device, metatheatrical and metadramatic, which emphasizes the nature of the play. Richard Hosley argues that it is “a short dramatic action introducing a full-length play, normally performed by two or more actors and creating a fictional situation different from that of the play itself.”[2] According to Harbage,[3] before 1594 twenty-one plays with introductory scenes were performed or simply entered in the Stationer’s register. Eight of these plays, such as George Gascoigne’s Jocasta (1566) and George Peele’s The Battle of Alcazar (1597), present a dumb-show[4] as introductory scene; the other eight plays have what Thelma Greenfield defines as “occasional inductions,”[5] such as that of The Spanish Tragedy (1582-92). Only four plays have the induction as a frame play: the anonymous The Taming of a Shrew (1594), William Shakespeare’s The Taming of the Shrew (1592), George Peele’s The Old Wives Tale (1588-1594), and Robert Greene’s The Scottish History of James IV (1590-1591). After 1594, the forms of induction registered by Harbage are forty-nine: eight in a dumb show form (such as John Marston’s Sophonisba or the Wonder of Women, 1605-1606), and only three in the form of frame play, Beaumont’s The Knight of the Burning Pestle (1607-1610), Beaumont and Fletcher and Field’s Four Moral Representations (1608-1613), and Thomas Randolph’s The Muses Looking-Glass (1630). Seventeen inductions have mainly an introductory function, presenting the play, and sometimes with its characters appearing throughout the play. One example is Thomas Dekker’s If This Be Not a Good Play the Devil Is in It (1611-1612), where the characters in the induction open and close the play. This kind of induction, is similar to the frame play, but it lacks the dramatic development of it – see, for instance, the induction to Thomas Middleton’s Michaelmas Term (1604-1606) and that to Laelia (1595), an adaptation in Latin of the French translation of Gli Ingannati and Charles Estienne’s Les Abusez (1540), performed at Queen’s College, Cambridge, in 1595. The other inductions after 1594 to the Restoration have been classified as “critical inductions,” where “human spectators appear on stage to watch a play and criticize it. Actors and tiremen rush about it in a last minute flurry before the play opens”[6] (Greenfield [1969]: 67).

The induction as dramatic and theatrical device was a way to overcome the gap between stage and audience, between make-believe and actuality, aiming at making the audience accept dramatic illusion. The induction, even though it possibly followed the Italian custom of turning prologues into a conversation, seems to gather and develop the characteristics of other introductory forms such as prologue and dumb show. The former, normally, does not contain dramatic action, whereas the latter lacks dialogue. The induction could have been influenced by the Italian prologues and epilogues, in particular by the dialogical prologues, such as Bibbiena’s La Calandria, even though in Italian Renaissance plays prologues were mainly used to disclose sources and plot, in the Terencian and Plautine traditions. Until the end of 16th century, prologues and epilogues of the Plautine and Terencian kind model themselves after Italian comedy, if not through a physical contact or a direct borrowing, then through what Louise George Clubb calls “theatergrams,” that is, “a common process based on the principle of contamination of sources, genres, and accumulated stage-structures”.[7]

Prologues and Epilogues. The Italian Comedic Tradition.

In the Italian Renaissance, the imitation of Latin literature became a principle of literary composition. Renaissance dramatists considered Plautus and Terence the supreme degree of perfection to be imitated. Not only were Latin comedies the sources for the dramatic composition (structure, plot, and characters), but also for their prologues. Both Plautus and Terence use extensively a variety of prologues:[8] four of Plautus’s comedies[9] have an expository dialogue and no narrative prologue, eight have a narrative prologue,[10] six open with a prologue,[11] which deals mainly with the “argumentum”. Unlike Plautus, Terence made the prologue independent of the play and gradually eliminated the argumentum. The prologues of commedie erudite have many similarities with those of the two Latin dramatists.

Giraldi Cinthio, in his essay Intorno al comporre delle commedie e delle tragedie (1543), emphasized how the prologue is independent of the fabula:

non si può dire tal prologo parte della favola; perché non ha lega­mento alcuno coll'azione che nella favola si tratta, né a quel modo si recita che si recitano l'altre parti; perocché colui che fa il prologo il fa “o” in persona del poeta, “o in commendazione della favola”, il quale non si può né si dee introdurre nell'azione.[12]

[The prologue cannot be considered part of the fabula, because it has no connections with the action treated in it; and it is not acted in the same manner as the other parts of the play. Therefore, whoever reads the prologue does it either to praise the fabula, or to act as the poet himself, who cannot and must not intrude in the action]

Whoever reads the prologue must not intrude in the action, as he speaks on behalf of the poet. The prologue is an addition made by the Romans to draw the attention of the audience and to favour their appreciation of the poet:

non imitando il prolo­go l'azione, riman chiarissimo ch'egli della favola non è parte, ma è una giunta postavi da' Romani per disporre gli animi degli spettatori alla attenzione, o per conciliare insieme benevo­lenza al poeta: “o per le altre cagioni già dette”, il che mostra il voltar del parlare che fa colui “che ha la cura” del prologo agli spettatori, la qual cosa non si può fare negli atti della favola, se non con riprensione.[13]

[as the prologue does not imitate the action, it is clear that it is not part of the fabula, but it is an addition made by the Romans to draw the attention of the spectators’ minds, or to give the poet their benevolence, or for the reasons I have already given. This is shown by the address to the audience made by the reader of the Prologue, something that cannot be done in the action of the fabula, without disapproval]

In that spirit, Ariosto prepared two different prologues to the Negromante, one for the performance to be given in Rome in 1520,[14] and another for the performance at Carnival in Ferrara in 1528, as if the circumstances affected the way the prologue had to be written and spoken. The Rome prologue contains direct references to the Pope (“De la soma virtù di Leon decimo,” “The high virtues of Leo 10th” and the city (“[Ferrara] sen’era sin qui in Roma venuta integra,” “[Ferrara] had arrived intact here in Rome”);[15] the prologue for the Ferrara performance contains both references to Ariosto’s hometown and to his plays, which were very popular at the court of Ferrara (“Autor da chi Ferrara ebbe di prossimo / La Lena; e già son quindici anni o sedeci,/ Ch’ella ebbe la Cassaria and li Suppositi,” “The author from whom recently Ferrara had La Lena, and la Cassaria e li Suppositi fifteen or sixteen years ago”.[16] Giovanni Francesco Loredano in Lo Incendio (1597) was more explicit about it when he wrote that it is a good thing to vary the Prologue according to the circumstances in which the play is given:

Sopra questa scena qual volta è accaduto far più rappresentationi di una favola, si è osservati variar prologo, sapendo che in tal materia ogni novità fatta con disegno suole apportare grandezza alla Commedia, diletto al popolo, & lode ai recitanti, & per mantenere questo buon ordine, sempre habbiamo usato diligenza di trovare invenzioni meritevoli di essere ascoltate, di ciò ne sete certi, quanto nella prova di questa, che è intitolata lo INCENDIO, vi si recitò Prologo non ingrato, & hora ne havereste un’altro, che di stile, & di materia saria stato non meno vago del primo se al nostro buon volere non si fosse opposta la presunzione di un maligno Pedagogo.[17]

[When on stage it happened that a fabula had to be performed more than once, we had also to change the prologue, knowing that in doing this every change made on purpose would bring greatness to the Comedy, amusement to the people, and praise to the players; in order to keep this order we have always tried to find inventions worthy of being heard, be sure of this; as far as this play entitled The Fire is concerned, a pleasant Prologue was performed, and now you will have another one, which, for the style and the subject, would be no less vague than the first if a spiteful Pedagogue’s presumption had not opposed to our good intentions.]

The prologue was, in the majority of cases, spoken by an actor – sometimes by the author himself, as in the prose version of Ariosto’s I Suppositi or Machiavelli’s Mandragola. Nevertheless, the prologue could be also given by two or more actors. This is the case of Pietro Aretino’s Ipocrito and La Cortigiana; or Ludovico Dolce’s Fabritia, where “due fanciulli fanno il prologo” (“two children say the prologue”),[18] or Alessandro Piccolomini’s L’amor costante. It could happen that the characters of the prologue were abstract characters, such as “la gelosia” (“Jelousy”), “il Riso” (“The Laugh”), “L’ubbidienza” (“The Obedience”), “La verità” (“The Truth”), “Tragedia” and “Commedia” (“Tragedy” and “Comedy”), “Prologo” and “Argomento” (“Prologue” and “Argument”).[19]

English Renaissance dramatists seem to have followed this two-actors kind of induction, which has been defined as allegorical,[20] which developed also from the late moralities. The Italian Renaissance prologue was an excellent inducement for English dramatists to introduce in their plays allegorical figures.[21] Between 1582 and 1604, we have a good number of plays beginning with an allegorical induction. For instance, in the anonymous A Warning to Fair Women (1599) History, Comedy, and Tragedy appear in bodily form on the stage discussing about the theme of the play.[22] In the anonymous The True Tragedy of Richard III (1594), the speakers are Truth and Poetrie who, starting from the appearance of the ghost of Clarence, first give the historical frame, then inform the audience about the events which brought Richard to the crown, and finally they present Richard. [23]

In Middleton’s Michaelmas Term (1604), allegorical representatives of the four terms of the legal year[24] are present in the induction, explaining the general purpose of the play. The induction ends with Michaelmas Term’s address to the audience.[25]

It was principally before 1600 that this kind of introductory scene was very popular.

Afterwards, starting from Marston’s Antonio and Mellida and Jonson’s Every Man Out of His Humour they had mainly the form of satirical inductions, a vehicle of criticism and satire which contributed to the so called “war of the theatres”. For example in the induction to Every Man Out of His Humour, Ben Jonson first attacks the audience:

Now gentlemen I goe

To turne an Actor, and a Humorist,

Where (ere I doe resume my present person)

We hope to make the circles of your eies

Flow with distilled laughter: if we faile,

We must impute it to this onely chance,

Art hath an enemie cal’d Ignorance.[26]

Then he considers the theory of comedy, illustrating its development:

Mit. Does he observe all the lawes of Comedie in it?

Card. Wathe lawes meane you?

Mit. Why the equall devision of it into Actas and Scenes,

According to the Terentian manner, his true number of Actors: the furnishing of the scene with Grex or Chorus, and that the whole Argument fall within compasse of a daies efficience powee: but ‘tis extant, that that which wee call Comedia, was at first nothing but a simple and continues Satyre, sung by one only person, till Susario, invented a second, after him Epicharmus a third, Phormus (long after) added a fifth and sixt: Eupolis more, Aristophane more than they: every man in the dignitie of his spirit and judgement, supplied something: and (though that in him this kind of Poeme appeared absolute, and fully perfected) yet how is the face of it chang’d since, in Menander, Philemon, Cecilius, Plautus, and the rest; who have utterly excluded the Chorus, altered the propertie of the persons, their names, and natures, and augmented it with all libertie, according to the elegancie and disposition of those times wherein they wrote. I see not then but we should enjoy the same Licentia or free power, to illustrate and heighten our invention as they did; and not to be tied to those strict and regular forms, which the nicenesse of a fewe (who are nothing but Forme) would thrust upon us.[27] (STC 14767, B4v)

Another kind of induction is the framing induction. It developed partly from the allegorical kind, and partly from the framed tale and the play-within-the play. These inductions differ from the allegorical ones, as the characters which appear in it are not allegorical but human. In general, these inductions provide a framework for the presentation of the play. Among them the anonymous The Taming of a Shrew; Robert Greene’s The Scottish History of James IV, with the return of Bohan from tomb, his conversation with Oberon and his invitation to the King of Fairies to see a play he has written about King James IV, which explains why he hates all the world; and George Peele’s The Old Wives Tale, where Frolick, Antick and Fantastic lost in the wood meet an old woman, Madge, who is asked to tell a story, but she cannot remember it and the characters of the story act it out for her; Anthony Munday’s The Downfall of Robert Earl of Huntington, with an induction which starts from the idea that the play is a rehearsal for a performance to be given before Henry VIII. The function of the induction in all these plays is that of providing a framework to the main plot of the play.

The induction seems to have some relationship with Italian prologues, both from a dramatic and theatrical perspective. It is in the dialogic prologue that we can find a kind of relation with the theatrical form of the induction. The above quoted prologues to Piccolomini’s L’amor costante, with a Spaniard commenting the on organization of the performance and his involvement in the production, and the prologue to Pietro Aretino’s La cortigiana with a Forestiero and a Gentiluomo discussing the “pomposo apparato” could have offered more than a mere example to Early Modern English drama. Also the introductory part to Lasca’s La strega, as Marvin Herrick has noted, has an introduction-like structure “similar to those later used by Ben Jonson, Shakespeare, and other Elizabethan playwrights”.[28] (Herrick [1960]: 137).

The popularity of these introductory scenes is witnessed also by University[29] drama and by the so called “closet plays”, never published or never performed. The importance of the University plays[30] in the transition of the Italianate comedic tradition goes beyond their aesthetical value. These plays, amateurish and duly imitative, extensively used prologues, choruses, songs, and epilogues.

The anonymous Laelia, which is extant in MS.,[31] was acted at Queen’s College, Cambridge probably on March 1st, 1595. Even if it is a translation, in Latin, of Charles Estienne’s French translation of Gli Ingannati, Les Abusez, the prologue is not that of the Italian play, nor is the epilogue. The prologue, probably written for the performance before the noble visitors of 1595, is a dialogue between Panneus and Sericus. It is meant to introduce the plot of the play: “Pan. Prologus sum. Venio narratum argumentum fabulae” (l. 3) (“Pan. I am the Prologue. I come to tell the argument of the play”).[32] The epilogue, spoken by Petrus is the classical Plautus-like epilogue meant to invite the audience to applaud:

Petrus Nostrae extremum iam actum tanquam Audiuisti comediae […] (Honoratissimi viri, onoratissimi, inquam, et grauissimi viri)/ Cum meo Cicerone plausum date,/ Vel potius cum Plauto, plaudite” (l. 78, 81-83)

 [“Petrus You have heard the final act of this comedy, most noble men, most noble I say, and most notable men, give your applause with my Cicero, or rather applaud with Plautus”].[33]

Another example is the anonymous Philomela, performed on 29th December 1607, at St. John’s College, Oxford, which survives only in MS.[34] The St. John’s anonymous dramatist took his material directly from Book VI of Ovid’s Metamorphosis. The play, a comedy of the neo-Plautine type, is set in Athens and Megara, a university town, a transparent disguise for Oxford. The first act is preceded by an “Induction Fortunae” and by a chorus (Terra and Unda). The plays ends with a speech by Fortuna (not headed as epilogue).

William Percy’s plays, which survive only in a Ms,[35] housed at the Huntington Library, present both prologues and epilogues. Among them is A Country Tragedy in Vacunium or Cupid’s Sacrifice (ca. 1602), which was probably privately acted. The play opens with a chorus of eight lovers, who sing a hymn to Cupid. Then the Presenter addresses a prayer to Cupid. The Chorus sits on either side of the stage, and the Presenter speaks the prologue, a mere plea for favour towards the play. The chorus intervenes at the end of each act with a song. The play ends with an epilogue divided into two parts: the argument between the Presenter and the Chorus whether the classical rules have been violated or not, and the songs sung by the Chorus.

Periander[36] is a tragedy based at first hand on a Greek original, such as Herodotus or Diogenes Laertius. The play opens with a chorus, a dialogue between The Master of the Revels, The Master of the Revels boy, Detraction and Resolution. The Master of the revels asks the boy “What’s your play nowe”, and the boy presents the play as a tragedy in English. Detraction, seated among the spectators shouts “Hisses” in disapproval (and continues: “Poxe: begin your play, and leaue your pratinge”). The Master of Revels and Detraction start to argue:

D. I haue heard your play repeated man, tis not so worshipfull stuffe as is expected

Mr. T’is to good for you sir.

D. And to bad for this Audience.[37]

Then Resolution intervenes, sent by His Lord (“My lorde sends to knowe what noyse this is.”). The Master of Revels accuses Detraction not to let the play begin, but Resolution says that “He is indeed an Epitome of all the fowle mouthe’s in a whole vniversity”. Then The Master of Revels exits. Resolution invites Detraction to act with him as chorus: “Thou and I wil be Chorus, they shall not hold: they’l speake to gravely for vs, and to wisely for the tyme”.

These introductory scenes seem to have been influenced by the allegorical prologues of Italian comedy. The University plays, but also the closet plays, which should be seen as a sort of cultural phenomenon, had an important role in the diffusion of Italian Renaissance dramatic and theatrical conventions. Both professional and academic playwrights were, in large number, coming from Oxford and Cambridge, where, both as spectator and as actors, when not as dramatists, they had experienced college plays.

What I have tried to show in this essay is how also theatrical conventions such as prologues and inductions can be indebted to Italian theatre. Even though the introductory scenes so popular in Early modern English drama such as prologues and inductions (along with epilogues and choruses), have certainly developed from a medieval tradition, they represent a device which derives also from Italianate comedic conventions.

WORKS CITED

Anonymous, The True Tragedy of Richard III, London, 1594.

Anonymous, A Warning to Fair Women, London, 1599.

Anonymous, Laelia, edited by George C. Moore Smith, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1910.

Anonymous, Laelia edited by Horst-Dieter Blume, Georg Olms Verlag, Hildesheim 1991.

Ariosto, Ludovico, Opere minori, edited by Luigi Polidori, Firenze, Le Monnier, 1857.

Ariosto, Ludovico, Opere Minori, edited by Cesare Segre, Milano-Napoli, Ricciardi, 1964.

Boas, Frederick S., University drama in the Tudor age, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1914.

Boas Frederick S., The Christmas Prince, The Malone Society reprints, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1922.

Cioni, Fernando, “Stages at the University of Cambridge in Tudor England”, in English Renaissance Scenes, edited by Paola Pugliatti and Alessandro Serpieri, Oxford, Peter Lang, 2006, pp. 127-154.

Clubb, Louise George, Italian Drama in Shakespeare’s Time, New Haven and London, Yale University Press, 1989.

Creizenach, Willheim, The English drama in the age of Shakespeare, London, Sidwick & Jackson, 1916, pp. 276-277.

Dolce, Ludovico, Fabritia, Venezia, 1549.

Fabia, Philippe, Les Prologues de Terence, Ernest Thorin, Paris 1888.

Giraldi Cinthio, Giovan Battista, Intorno al comporre delle commedie e delle tragedie (1543), in Commedie del Cinquecento, edited by Aldo Borlenghi, Rizzoli, Milano 1959, vol. I.

Goggio, Emilio, “The Prologue in the Commedie Erudite of the Sixteenth Century”, Italica, 18 (1941) pp. 124-132.

Greenfield, Thelma, The Induction in Elizabethan Drama, Eugene, The University of Oregon Press, 1969.

Harbage, Alfred, Annals of English Drama, Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1940.

Herrick, Marvin T., Italian comedy in the Renaissance, Urbana, Illinois University Press, 1960.

Hillebrand, Harold N., “William Percy: An Elizabethan Amateur”, The Huntington Library Quarterly 1 (1938), pp. 391-416.

Hosley, Richard, “Was There a ‘Dramatic Epilogue’ to The Taming of the Shrew?, Studies in English Literature, 1500-1900, 1 (1961), pp. 17-34.

Jonson, Ben, Every Man Out of His Humour, London 1600.

Loredano, Giovanni Francesco, Lo Incendio, Venezia, 1597.

Mehl, Dieter, The Elizabethan Dumb Show, Cambridge (Mass.), Harvard University Press, 1966.

Middleton, Thomas, Michaelmas Term, edited by Theodore B. Leinwand, in The Collected Works, edited by Gary Taylor and John Lavagnino, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 2007.

Moore Smith, George C., College plays performed in the university of Cambridge, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1923.

Taylor, Michael, “Notes”, in Thomas Middleton, A Mad World, My Master and other plays, edited by Michael Taylor, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1995, p. 318).

APPENDIX

The following table summarizes the presence of introductory scenes (such as inductions, dumb shows, choruses, prologues, epilogues, etc.) in early modern English drama from 1516 to 1642: 308 plays written and/or performed before the closing of the theatres (including ten manuscripts, seventeen Latin plays, and a play not classified by Greg, Shakespeare’s The Taming of the Shrew, that have the same entry of the anonymous The Taming of a Shrew), from a total of 836 plays in English – including manuscripts – and 22 in Latin.

The first column is devoted to the name of the author, or the authors. When is a collaborative play the names are indicated with surname and the initials. When an author has the main hand, he is placed in the first place, followed by “with” (i.e. “Fletcher, with Beaumont”). Anonymous is used when the authorship is unknown.

The second column is devoted to title as they appear on the front page of a published playtext, or on the first page of a manuscript. When a play is an adaptation of another play, the title of the adapted play is given in brackets.

The third column supplies the year of publication (or the only extant early edition) and of the first performance (A). When a play was not published individually, “collection” follows the year of publication. When a play has been revised, the date is supplied after the date of the first publication and performance. For manuscripts, the approximate date of the manuscript is given.

The fourth column supplies a rough classification of the play as classified in Alfred Harbage’s Annals of English Drama, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia 1940;

The fifth column supplies the place of the first performance (theatre, college, etc.), or the name of the professional company that performed the play; “closet” means the plays was not written to be performed;

The sixth column gives the entry in the “Short title catalogue”, the catalogue of printed texts published in England until 1700.

The seventh column gives the entry as in W.W. Greg’s A Bibliography of the English Printed Drama to the Restoration, The Bibliographical Society, London 1939-59, 4 vol. (MS stands for manuscript, L for plays in Latin);

The eight column describes the kind of introductory scene in each play; “conclusion” means a not headed epilogue; “in form of a dialogue” means a prologue or epilogue with more than one actor performing them.

 

Prologues, inductions, choruses, dumb shows in Early Modern English drama (1512-1642)

 
Author

Title

Year

Dramatic genre

Place of performance

STC

Greg

Notes

1.

Merbury, Francis (?)

The Marriage between Wit and Wisdom

1579

Moral Interlude

Unknown

 

MS

Prologue and epilogue

2.

Anon.

Revival of Three Plays in One? (Seven deadly sin)

1590 c.

Moral

Strange’s

 

MS

Two introductory scenes, conclusion and epilogue

3.

Anon.

Laelia

1595

MS

Latin comedy

Queen’s College, Cambridge

 

MS

Prologue (dialogue between Penneus and Sericus), Epilogue (not headed)

4.

Anon.

Philomela

1607

A 29 Dic. 1607

Latin tragedy

St. John’s College, Oxford

 

MS

Induction and conclusion by Fortuna

5.

Percy William

A Country Tragedy in Vacunium or Cupid’s Sacrifice

1602

Tragedy

Privately acted?

 

MS

Chorus, prologue, chorus at the end of each act, epilogue in form of a dialogue

6.

Sansbury, John

Periander

1608

Tragedy

St. John’s Col., Oxford

 

MS

Induction (Chorus), chorus at the end of each act, with epilogue an conclusion

7.

Willmot, R. Stalford, Hatton, Noel, G. Al.

Gismond of Salerne

1566 or 1568

P 1591

Tragedy

Inner Temple

 

MS

Prologue spoken by Cupid, epilogue

8.

Anonymous

Narcissus. A Twelfth Night Merriment

1603

Farce

St. John College, Oxford

 

MS

Induction, song, prologue, epilogue

9.

Anonymous

The Dead Man’s Fortune

1590 c.

Romantic Comedy

Admiral’s

 

MS

Prologue

10.

Anonymous

Frederick and Basilea

1597

Romance

Admiral’s

performed at the Rose

 

MS

Prologue and epilogue spoken by Richard Alleyn

11.

Gager, William

Meleager

1592

A 1582

Latin Tragedy

Christ Church, Oxford

STC 11515

L2

Chorus at the end of each act, two prologues and one epilogue (+ two prologues for the performance before Queen Elizabeth in 1592)

12.

Gager, William

Ulysses Redux

1592

A 1592

Latin Tragedy

Christ Church, Oxford

STC 11516

L4

Chorus, Prologue and epilogue

13.

Gwinne, Matthew

Nero Tragoedia Nova

1603

A 1603

Latin tragedy

St. John’s Col., Oxford

STC 12553

L5

Prologue and epilogue spoken by Nemesis, chorus and introductory dumb show

14.

Gwinne, Matthew

Vertumnus

1607

A 1605

Latin Play

St John’s men at Christ Church, Oxford

STC 12555

L6

Epilogue and a dialogue for the King’s entrance

15.

Ruggle, George

Ignoramus

1630

A 1615

Civic pageant

London

STC 21445

L8

Two prologues in form of a dialogue, epilogue

16.

Stub, Edmund

Fraus Honesta

1632

A 1619

Latin Comedy

Trinity College, Cambridge

STC 23374

L10

Prologue and epilogue

17.

Alabaster, William

Roxana

(Adapt. Groto La Dalida)

1632

A 1592

Latin Tragedy

Trinity College, Cambridge

STC 249

L11

Chorus in each act

18.

Hausted, Peter

Senile Odiu,

1633

A 1631

Latin Comedy

Queen’s College, Cambridge

STC 12936

L12

Prologue and epilogue

19.

Hutton, Leonard (?)

Bellum Grammaticale

1635

A 1582

Latin Allegory

Christ Church, Oxford in 1592

STC 12418

L13

Prologue and epilogue

20.

Hawkesworth, Walter

Labyrinthus (adap. Della Porta La Cintia)

1636

A 1603

Latin Comedy

Trinity College, Cambridge

STC 12956

L14

Prologue and epilogue

21.

Cowley, Abraham

Naufragium Ioculare

1638

A 1638

Latin Comedy

Trinity College, Cambridge

STC 5905

L15

Prologue and epilogue

22.

Randolph, Thomas (?) completata da Richard Brathwait (?)

Cornelianum Dolium

1638

A 1638

Latin Comedy

Unknown

STC 20691

L16

Prologue and epilogue

23.

Snelling, Thomas

Thibaldus (Pharamus)

1640

A 1640

Latin Tragedy

St John’s College, Oxford

STC 22888

L17

Chorus at the end of each act, except the last one

24.

Brathwait, Richard

Mercurius Britannicus

1641

A 1641

Latin Political Comedy

Closet

STC B4269

L18

Epilogue

25.

Hacket, John

Loyola

1648

A 1623

Latin Comedy

Trinity College, Cambridge

H170

L19

Praeludium, two prologues

26.

Anonymous

Stoicus Vapulans

1648

A 1618

Latin Moral

St John’s College, Cambridge

H170

L20

Prologue and epilogue

27.

Anonymous

Cancer

(adapt. . Salviati Il Granchio)

1648

A 1612

Latin Comedy

Trinity College, Cambridge

H170

L21

Prologue

28.

Anonymous

Paria

1648

A 1628

Latin Comedy

Trinity College, Cambridge

H170

L22

Two prologues, one epilogue, one prologue-like argomentum

29.

Medwall, Henry

1 Fulgens and Lucrece

1512-1516

A 1497

Romantic interlude

Morton’s house (?)

STC 17778

1

Dialogue between A and B, probable Induction

30.

Medwall, Henry

2 Fulgens and Lucrece

1512-1516

A 1497

Romantic interlude

Morton’s house (?)

STC 17778

2

Dialogue between A and B, probable Induction

31.

Rastell, John

The Nature of Four Elements

1526-1527

A 1517

Didactic interlude

Unknown

STC 20722

6

Prologue

32.

Rastell, John

1 Gentleness and Nobility

1529

A 1527

Dialogue

Rastel’s stage (?)

STC 20723

8

Epilogue

33.

Rastell, John

2 Gentleness and Nobility

1529

A 1527

Dialogue

Rastel’s stage (?)

STC 20723

9

Epilogue

34.

Anonymous

Andria

(tr. Terence)

1530 c.

A 1520

Comedy

Closet

STC 23894

12

Prologue and epilogue

35.

Bale, John

The Chief Promise of God

1547-1548

A 1538

Anthi-Catholic Mystery

St. Stephen, Canterbury

STC 1305

22

Prologue and epilogue

36.

Bale, John

The Temptation of Christ

1547-1548

A 1538

Anthi-Catholic Mystery

St. Stephen, Canterbury

STC 1279

23

Prologue and epilogue

37.

Bale, John

The Three Laws

1547-1548

A 1538

Anthi-Catholic Mystery

St. Stephen, Canterbury

STC 1287

24

Prologue

38.

Heywood, Jasper

Troas

1559

Tragedy

Closet

STC 22227

28

Chorus at the end of each act, except the last one, Prologue

39.

Heywood, Jasper

Thyestes

1560

A 1560

Tragedy

Closet

STC 22227

29

Chorus at the end of each act, except the last one

40.

Anonymous

Nice Wanton

1560

A 1550

Unknown

Paul’s at Court

STC 25016

31

Prologue

41.

Anonymous

Godly Queen Hester

1561

A 1527

Biblical Interlude

Unknown

STC 13251

33

Prologue

42.

Heywood, Jasper

Hercules furens

(tr. Seneca)

1561

A 1561

Tragedy

Closet

STC 22223

34

Chorus at the end of each act, except the last one

43.

Neville, Alexander

Oedipus

(tr. Seneca)

1563

A 1563

Tragedy

Closet

STC 22225

36

Chorus at the end of act I, III, IV

44.

Sackwille T. and

T . Norton

Gorboduc

(Ferrex and Porrex)

1565

A 1562

Tragedy

Inner Temple

STC 18684

39

dumb show before each act, Chorus at the end of each act, except the last one

45.

Anonymous

King Darius

1565

1565

Protestant Moral

Unknown

STC 6277

40

Prologue and epilogue

46.

Wever, R.

Lusty Juventus

1565 a.

A 1550

Anti-Catholic moral interlude

Unknown

STC 25149

41

Prologue

47.

Studley, John

Agamemnon

1566

A 1566

Tragedy

Closet

STC 22222

42

Chorus at the end of each act, except the last one

48.

Studely, John

Medea

(tr. Seneca)

1566 a.

A 1566

Tragedy

Closet

STC 22224

44

Chorus at the end of each act, except the last one

49.

Nuce, Thomas

Octavia

(tr. Seneca)

1566

A 1566

Tragedy

Closet

STC 22229

45

Chorus at the end of act I and IV

50.

Udall, Nicholas

Ralph Roister Doister

1566 ?

A 1552

Comedy

Unknown

(Windsor Boys?)

STC 24508

46

Prologue, final song

51.

Wager, Lewis

The Repentance of Mary Magdalene

1566

A 1558

Moral-biblical interlude

Unknown

STC 24932

47

Prologue

52.

Wager, W. (?)

The Trial of Treasure

1567

A 1567

Moral interlude

Unknown

STC 24271

49

Prologue

53.

Fulwell, Ulpian

Like Will to Like

1568 a.

A 1568

Moral interlude

Unknown

STC 11473

50

Prologue, final song

54.

Udall, Nicholas (?) or Hunnis, W. (?)

Jacob and Esau

1568

A 1554

Biblical interlude

Unknown (boys)

STC 14327

51

Prologue and epilogue

55.

Phillip, John

Patient and Meek Grissil

1569

A 1559

Comedy

Unknown

STC 19865

52

Prologue and epilogue

56.

Wager, W.

The Longer thou Livest the More Fool thou Art

1569

A 1559

Protestant Moral

Unknown

STC 24935

53

Prologue

57.

Ingeland, Thomas

The Disobedient Child

1569

A 1560

Interlude

Unknown

STC 14085

54

Prologue and epilogue

58.

Preston, Thomas

Cambises

1569

A 1561

Tragedy

Corte (?)

STC 20287

56

Prologue and epilogue

59.

Wager, W.

Enough is as Good as a Feast

1565-1570

A 1560

Protestant moral

Unknown

STC 24933

57

Prologue

60.

Edwards, Richard

Damon and Pithias

1571

A 1564

Tragicomedy

Merton College Oxford

STC 7514

58

Prologue, final song

61.

Anonymous

New Custom

1573

A 1571

Protestant moral

Unknown

STC 6150

59

Prologue

62.

Gascoigne, George

Supposes

1573

collection

A 1566

Comedy

Gray’s Inn

STC 11635

60

Prologue

63.

Gascoigne, George Kinwelmershe, F.

Jocasta

1573

collection

A 1566

Tragedy

Gray’s Inn

STC 11635

61

Each act is preceded by a dumb show and followed by a chorus, epilogue

64.

Anon.

Comoedia. A work in ryme contayning an Interlude of Minds

1574 c.

 A c 1574

Protestant moral

Closet

STC 18550

64

Seventeen chapters, the first one headed as prologue, and the last three form the conclusion.

65.

B[ower?], R[ichard]

Appius and Virginia

1575

A 1564

Classical moral

Westminster boys (?)

STC 1059

65

Prologue and epilogue

66.

Stevenson, W. (?)

Gammer Gurton’s Needle

1575

A 1553

Comedy

Christ’s College Cambridge

STC 23263

67

Prologue

67.

Gascoigne, George

The Glass of Government

1575

A 1575

Moral allegory

Closet

STC 11643

68

Prologue and epilogue, chorus after each act except the last one

68.

Anonymous

Common Conditions

1576

A 1576

Heroical moral

Unknown

STC 5592

69

Prologue and epilogue

69.

Wapull, George

The Tide Tarrieth no Man

1576

A 1576

Moral

Unknown

STC 25018

70

Prologue

70.

Golding, Arthur

Abraham’s Sacrifice

1577

A 1575

Tragedy

Closet

STC 2047

71

Prologue and epilogue

71.

Lupton, Thomas

All for Money

1578

A 1577

Satirical moral

Unknown

STC 16949

72

Prologue and epilogue

72.

Woodes, Nathaniel

The Conflict of Conscience

1581

A 1572

Protestant moral

Unknown

STC 25966

78

Prologue, act VI as a sort of chorus/epilogue, single speech by Nuntius

73.

Studley, John

Hyppolitus

1581

(collection)

A 1567

Tragedy

Closet

STC 22221

80

Chorus at the end of each act, except the last one

74.

Studley, John

Hercules Oeataeus

1581

(collection)

A 1566

Tragedy

Closet

STC 22221

81

Chorus

75.

Lyly, John

Sappho and Phao

1584

A 1583

Classical legend (comedy)

Oxford’s boys

STC 17086

82

Two prologues and one epilogue

76.

Peele, George

The Arraignment of Paris

1584

A 1581

Classical legend (pastoral)

Chapel at Court

STC 19530

83

Prologue and epilogue. Epilogue in Latin

77.

Lyly, John

Campaspe

1584

A 1583

Classical legend (comedy)

Oxford’s boys

STC 17047.5

84

Prologue and epilogue

78.

R.W. (Robert Wilson)

The Three Ladies of London

1584

A 1581

Moral

Unknown

STC 25784

85

Prologue

79.

Munday, Anthony

Fedele e Fortunio

1585

A 1584

Comedy

At Court

STC 19447

86

Prologue and epilogue

80.

Hughes T. with Bacon, Trotte, Fullwek, Lancaster, Yelverton, Penroodocke and Flower

The Misfortunes of Arthur

1587

 A 1588

Tragedy

Gray’s Inn at Court

STC 13921

89

Epilogue, chorus at the end of each act except the last one, dumb show before each act

81.

Anonymous

Love and Fortune

1589

A 1582

Mythological moral

Derby’s at Court

STC 24286

92

First act has the structure of an induction, its characters act as a sort of chorus at the end of the next three acts and join the other characters in the last one

82.

R.W. (Robert Wilson)

The Three Lords of London

1590

A 1588

Moral

Queen’s

STC 25783

93

Prologue

83.

Marlowe, Christopher

1 Tamburlaine

1590

A 1587

Heroical romance

Admiral’s

STC 17425

94

Prologue

84.

Marlowe, Christopher

2 Tamburlaine

1590

A 1588

Heroical romance

Admiral’s

STC 17425

95

Prologue

85.

Fraunce, Abraham

Amynta’s Pastoral

(tr. Tasso)

1591

A 1591

Pastoral

Closet

STC 11340

97

Chorus and epilogue

86.

Lyly, John

Endymion

1591

A 1588

Classical legend (comedy)

Paul’s at Court

STC 17050

99

Prologue and epilogue

87.

Anonymous

1 The Troublesome Raigne of King John

1591

A 1588

History

Queen’s

STC 14644

101

Prologue

88.

Anonymous

2 The Troublesome Raigne of King John

1591

A 1591

History

Queen’s

STC 14645

102

Prologue

89.

Wilmot R., Stafford, Hatton, Noel, Al.,G.

Tancred and Gismund

1591

A 1566

Senecan Tragedy

Innert Temple

STC 25764

104

Two prologues, one epilogue, chorus at the end of each act except the last one

90.

Lyly, John

Gallathea

1592

A1585

Classical legend (comedy)

Paul’s

STC 17080

105

Prologue and epilogue

91.

Lyly, John

Midas

1592

A 1589

Comedy

Paul’s

STC 17083

106

Prologue

92.

Anonymous

Arden of Feversham

1592

A 1591

Realistic tragedy

Unknown

STC 733

107

Epilogue

93.

Herbert, Mary

Antonius

1592

 A 1590

Tragedy

Closet

STC 18138

108

Chorus at the end of each act except the last one

94.

Anon. (T. Kyd?)

The Tragedy of Soliman and Perseda

1592

A 1589

Tragedy

Unknown

STC 22894

109

Chorus

95.

Kyd, Thomas

The Spanish Tragedy

1592

A 1587

Tragedy

Strange’s, Admiral’s

STC 15086

110

Chorus in form of a dialogue between Revenge and the ghost of Andrea at the beginning and at the end of each act.

96.

 Kyd, Thomas

Cornelia

1594

A 1594

Tragedy

Closet (?)

STC 11622

116

Chorus at the beginning and at the end of each act except the last one.

97.

Lodge, Thomas, Greene, Robert

A Looking-Glass for London and England

1594

A 1590

Biblical moral

Queen’s (?)

STC 16679

118

Chorus

98.

Shakespeare, William

The Taming of the Shrew

1623 collection

A 1594­

Comedy

Sussex’s? Chamberlain’s

STC 22273

120a

Induction

99.

Anonymous

The Taming of a Shrew

1594

Comedy

Queen’s?

STC 23667

120

Induction, interludes, conclusion

100.

Anon.

The True Tragedy of Richard the Third

1594

A 1591

History

Queen’s

STC 21009

126

Induction and conclusion

101.

Peele, George

The Battle of Alcazar

1594

A 1589

Foreign History

Admiral’s

STC 19531

127

Prologue and dumb show

102.

Greene, Robert (?)

1 Selimus

1594

A 1592

Heroical romance

Unknown

STC 2310a

130

Prologue and epilogue

103.

Anonymous

The Wars of Cyrus

1594

A 1588

Classical history

Chapel

STC 6160

131

Prologue (misplaced ten pages after the beginning of the play)

104.

Daniel, Samuel

Cleopatra

1594

A 1593

Revised 1607

Tragedy

Closet

STC 6254

132

Chorus at the end of each act, except the last one

105.

Anonymous

Pedlar’s Prophecy

1595

A 1561

Protestant Moral

Unknown

STC 25782

134

Prologue and epilogue

106.

W. S.” (Peele? Greene?)

Locrine

1591

A 1594

Pseudo‑history

Unknown

STC 21528

136

Prologue and epilogue

107.

Peele, George

The Old Wives Tale

1595

A 1590

Romance

Queen’s

STC 19545

137

Induction

108.

Shakespeare, William

Romeo and Juliet

1597

A 1595

Tragedy

Chamberlain’s

STC 22322

143

Prologue and chorus

109.

Lyly, John

The Woman in the Moon

1597

A 1593

Comedy

Unknown

STC 17090

144

Prologue

110.

Brandon, Samuel

The Virtuous Octavia

1598

A 1598

Tragicomedy

Closet

STC 3544

147

Chorus at the end of each act except the last one

111.

Greene, Robert

The Scottish History of James I V

1598

A 1590

History

Queen’s?

STC 12308

149

Induction and chorus

112.

Anon.

Mucedorus and Amadine

1598

rev. 1610

A 1590

Romantic comedy

Unknown

(Queen’s men?

Pembroke’s ?

Sussex’s ?)

(King’s 1610)

STC 18230

151

Induction and epilogue, Prologue added later

113.

Heywood, Thomas (?) and others (?)

1 Edward IV

1599

A 1599

History

Derby’s

STC 13341

153

Chorus

114.

Heywood, Thomas (?) and others (?)

2 Edward IV

1599

A 1599

History

Derby’s

STC 13341

154

Chorus

115.

Anon. (T. Heywood ?)

A Warning for Fair Women

1599

A 1599

Tragedy

Chamberlain’s

STC 25089

155

Induction, prologue, dumb show, epilogue

116.

Greene, Robert

Alphonsus King of Aragon

1599

A 1587

Heroical romance

Unknown

STC 12233

156

Induction and conclusion

117.

Anonymous (T. Preston?) Peele

Clymon and Clamydes

1599

A 1570

Heroical romance

Revived by Queen’s (?)

STC 5450a

157

Prologue

118.

Peele, George

The Love of King David and Fair Bethsabe

1599

A 1587

Heroical romance

Unknown

STC 19540

160

Prologue and chorus

119.

Porter, Henry

The Two Angry Women of Abingdon

1599

A 1598

Comedy

Unknown

STC 20123

161

Prologue

120.

Dekker, Thomas

The Pleasant Comedy of Old Fortunatus

1600

1599

Comedy

Admiral’s

STC 6517

162

Prologue in forma of a dialogue (at court), final song, epilogue (at court)

121.

Jonson, Ben

Every Man out of his Humour

1600

A 1599

Comedy

Chapel

STC 14767

163

Induction (frame play), epilogue

122.

Anonymous (Day?, Lyly?)

The Maid’s Metamorphosis

1600

A 1600

Comedy

Paul’s

STC 17188

164

Prologue

123.

Shakespeare, William

Henry V

1600

A 1599

History

Chamberlain’s

STC 22289

165

F1 1623: Prologue and chorus

124.

Drayton, Hathway, Munday, Wilson

Sir John Oldcastle

1600

A1599

History

Chamberlain’s

STC 18795

166

Prologue

125.

Shakespeare, William

2 Henry IV

1600

A 1597

History

Chamberlain’s

STC 22288

167

Induction

126.

Anon. (T. Dekker in part?)

The Weakest Goeth to the Wall

1600

A 1600

Pseudo‑history

Oxford’s

STC 25144

171

Prologue

127.

Nash, Thomas

Summer’s Last Will and Testament

1592

A 1592

Comedy

Whitgift’s house (?)

STC 18376

173

Induction, including prologue, and epilogue, with conclusion. Will Summer acts as a chorus or commentary throughout the play

128.

Dekker, Thomas

The Shoemaker’s Holiday

1600

A 1599

Comedy

Admiral’s

STC 6523

175

Prologue

129.

Jonson, Ben

Everyman in His Humour

1601

A 1598

Comedy

Chamberlain’s

STC 14766

176

F 1616: Prologue

130.

Marston, John

John/Jack Drum’s Entertainment, or Pasquil and Catherin

1601

A 1600

Comedy

Paul’s

STC 7243

177

Induction, Morris dance, music, and songs

131.

Munday, Anthony (& Chettle)

The Downfall of Robert, Earl of Hunting

1601

A 1598

History

Admiral’s

STC18721

179

Induction and conclusion, Dumb show masque

132.

Chettle, H, Munday, Anthony

The Death of Robert Earl of Huntington

1601

A 1598

History

Admiral’s

STC 18271

180

Epilogue

133.

Jonson, Ben

Cynthia’s Revels

1601

A 1600

Comedy

Chapel

STC 14773

181

Induction, masque, epilogue

134.

Yarington, R.

Two Lamentable Tragedies in One

1601

A 1594

Tragedy

Admiral’s?

STC 26076

182

Induction and conclusion

135.

Dymock, John (?)

Il pastor fido

1602

A 1601

Pastoral

Closet

STC 12415

183

Chorus at the end of each act

136.

Marston, John

Antonio and Mellida

1602

A 1599

Tragicomedy

Paul’s

STC 17473

184

Induction, prologue and epilogue

137.

Marston, John

Antonio’s revenge

1602

A 1600

Tragedy

Paul’s

STC 17474

185

Prologue

138.

Jonson, Ben

Poetaster

1601

A 1601

Comedy

Chapel

STC 14781

186

Induction and prologue

139.

Anonymous (by “W.S.”)

Thomas Lord Cromwell

1602

A 1600

History

Chamberlain’s

STC 21532

189

Chorus

140.

Anonymous

The Contention between Liberality and Prodigality

1602

A 1601

Moral interlude

Chapel

STC 5593

190

Prologue and epilogue

141.

Anonymous

A Larum for London

1602

A 1599

History

Chamberlain’s

STC 16754

192

Prologue and epilogue

142.

Dekker, Thomas (with John Marston?)

Satiromastix

1602

A 1601

Comedy

Chamberlain’s and Paul’s

STC 6521

195

Epilogue

143.

Alexander, William

Darius

1603

A 1603

Tragedy

Closet

STC 349

196

Chorus at the end of each act

144.

Anonymous (Montgomery?)

Philotus

1603

A 1603

Comedy

Closet (?)

STC 19888

199

Epilogue

145.

Marston, John

The Malcontent

1604

A1604

Tragicomedy

Queen’s revels e King’s

STC 17479

203

Induction (by John Webster), dumb show, masque

146.

Marlowe, Christopher

Dr Faustus

1604

A 1592

Tragedy

Admirals

STC 17429

205

Prologue and epilogue

147.

Anonymous

The Wit of a Woman

1604

A 1604

Comedy

Not performed (?)

STC 25868

206

Prologue and epilogue

148.

Alexander, William

Croesus

1604

collection

A1604

Tragedy

Closet

STC 343

209

Chorus at the end of each act

149.

Marston, John

The Dutch Courtesan

1605

A 1605

Comedy

Queen’s Revels

STC 17475

214

Prologue

150.

Jonson, Ben, George Chapman, John Marston

Eastward Ho

1605

A 1605

Comedy

Queen’s Revels

STC 4970

217

Prologue and epilogue

151.

Chapman, George

All Fools

1605

A 1601

Comedy

Queen’s Revels

STC 4963

219

Prologue and epilogue

152.

Anon. (Kyd?)

The First Part of Ieronimo

1605

A 1604

Pseudo‑history

King’s?

STC 15085

221

Ieronimo ends the play (“Enter Ieronimo Solus”)

153.

Daniel, Samuel

Philotas

1605 collection

A 1604

Tragedy

Queen’s Revels

STC 6239

223

Chorus

154.

Heywood, Thomas

If you Know Me You Know Nobody

1606

A 1605

History

Queens’ Anne

STC 13336

224

1633: chorus

155.

Anonymous

(Gwyn in part?)

I & 2 Return from Parnassus

1606

A 1603

Satirical comedy

St. John’s College, Cambridge

STC 19039

225

Induction and epilogue

156.

Anonymous

Nobody and somebody

1606

A 1605

Pseudo-history

Queen’s Anne

STC 18597

229

Prologue and epilogue

157.

Marston, John

Parasitaster

1606

A 1604

Comedy

Queen’s Revels

STC 17483

230

Prologue and epilogue

158.

Marston, John

The Wonder of Women or Sophonisba

1606

A 1605

Tragedy

Queen’s Revels

STC 17488

231

Prologue and epilogue

159.

Anon. (probably Simon Rowley)

Wily Beguiled

1606

A 1602

Comedy

Paul’s

STC 25818

234

Induction, masque, two prologues, epilogue

160.

Day, John

The Isle of Gulls

1606

A 1606

Comedy

Queen’s Revels King’s Revels

STC 6412

235

Induction, prologue and epilogue

161.

Dekker, Thomas

The Whore of Babylon

1607

A 1607

Allegorical History

Prince Henry’s

STC 6532

241

Prologue

162.

Middleton, Thomas

Michaelmas Term

1607

A 1606

Comedy

Paul’s

STC 17890

244

Induction

163.

Day J., W. Rowley, G. Wilkins

The Travels of Three English Brothers

1607

A 1607

Topical

Queen Anne’s

STC 25635

248

Prologue and epilogue, chorus

164.

Marston, John

What You Will

1607

 A 1601

Comedy

Paul’s

STC 17487

252

Induction, prologue

165.

Barnes, B.

The Devil’s Charter

1607

A 1606

Tragedy

King’s

STC 1466

254

Prologue and epilogue , chorus

166.

Jonson, Ben

Volpone

1607

A 1606

Comedy

King’s

STC 14783

259

Prologue + Volpone’s final speech similar to an epilogue

167.

Middleton, Thomas (and Thomas Dekker?)

The Family of Love

1608

A 1603

Comedy

Admiral’s (?)

(King’s Revels in 1607)

STC 17879

263

Prologue and epilogue

168.

Anon. (T. Dekker?)

The Merry Devil of Edmonton

1608

A 1602

Comedy

Chamberlain’s

STC 7493

264

Prologue

169.

Middleton, Thomas

Your Five Gallants

1608

A 1607

Comedy

Paul’s (S.R. : Chapel)

STC 17907

266

Dumb shows, prologue

170.

Day, John (with Wilkins, G ?)

Law Tricks

1608

A 1604

Comedy

King’s Revels

STC 6416

267

Epilogue

171.

Chapman, George

The Conspiracy of Charles Duke of Byron

1608

A 1608

Tragedy

Queen’s Revels

STC 4968

274

Prologue

172.

Greville, Fulke

Mustapha

1609

A 1596

Tragedy

Closet

STC 12362

278

Chorus

173.

Anonymous

Every Woman in her Humour

1609

A 1607

Comedy

King’s Revels (?)

STC 25948

283

Prologue

174.

Shakespeare, William

Pericles

1609

A 1608

Tragicomedy

King’s

STC 22334

284

Chorus (Gower)

175.

Mason, John

The Turk (Muleassees the Turk)

1610

A 1607

Tragedy

King’s Revels

STC 17617

286

Prologue and epilogue

176.

Fletcher, John

The Faithful Shepherdess

1608

Pastoral

Queen’s Revels?

STC 11070

287

Q 1634: Prologue in form of a dialogue

177.

Barry, Lording

Ram Alley

1611

A1608

Comedy

King’s Revels

STC 1502

292

Prologue and epilogue

178.

Heywood, Thomas

The Golden Age

1611

A 1610

Classical legend

Queen’s Anne’s

STC 13325

294

Chorus at the end of each act

179.

Jonson, Ben

Catiline his Conspiracy

1611

A 1611

Tragedy

King’s

STC 14759

296

Chorus at the end of each act except the last one; 

F 1616 Chorus at the end of each act

180.

Dekker, Thomas, Middleton, Thomas

The Roaring Girl

1611

A 1611

Comedy

Prince Henry’s

STC 17908

298

Prologue and epilogue

181.

Daborne, Robert

A Christian Turned Turk

1612

A 1610

Tragedy

King’s (?), Queen’s Revels (?)

STC 6184

300

Prologue and epilogue, dumb show

182.

Jonson, Ben

The Alchemist

1612

A 1610

Comedy

King’s

STC 14755

303

Prologue

183.

Jonson, Ben

Epicoene

1612

A 1609

Comedy

Queen’s Revels

STC 14761

304

Two prologues

184.

Dekker, Thomas

If This Be Not a Good Play, the Devil Is in It

1612

A 1611

Comedy

Queen Anne’s

STC 6507

305

Induction and conclusion, prologue and epilogue

185.

Carey, Elizabeth

Mariam

1613

A 1604

Tragedy

Closet

STC 4613

308

Chorus at the end of each act

186.

Heywood, Thomas

The Brazen Age

1613

A 1611

Classical Legend

Queen’s and King’s

STC 13310

313

Prologue and epilogue

187.

Beaumont, Francis

The Knight of the Burning Pestle

1613

A 1607

Burlesque romance

Queen’s Revels

STC 1674

316

Induction and epilogue in form of a dialogue

188.

Heywood, Thomas

The Silver Age

1613

A 1611

Classical Legend

Queen’s and King’s

STC 23248

317

Chorus, dumb show

189.

Tailor, Robert

The Hog hath Lost his Pearl

1614

A 1613

Comedy

Whitefriars

STC 23658

321

Prologue and epilogue

190.

Daniel, Samuel

Hymen’s Triumph

1615

A 1614

Pastoral court

Unknown.

STC 6257

325

Prologue in form of a dialogue

191.

R. A.

(Robert Armin? Robert Anton?)

The Valiant Welshman

1615

A 1612

History

Prince’s Men

STC 16

327

Epilogue

192.

Tomkins, Thomas

Albumazar

1614

A 1615

Comedy

Trinity College Cambridge

STC 24100

330

Prologue and epilogue

193.

Heywood, Thomas

The Four Prentices of London

1615

A 1594

Heroical romance

Admiral’s

STC 13321

333

Induction (headed “The prologues”) among three prologues

194.

S.S.

The Honest Lawyer

1616

A 1615

Comedy

Queen’s Anne’s

STC 21519

337

Epilogue

195.

Holyday, Barten

Technogamia, or The Marriages of the Arts

1618

A 1618

Moral

Christ Church, Oxford

STC 13717

353

Prologue and epilogue

196.

Belchier, Daubridgcourt

Hans Beer-Pot (See me and see me not)

1618

A 1618

Dialogue

Not performed (?)

STC 1803

354

Prologue

197.

Anonymous

Two Wise Men and all the Rest Fools

1619

A 1619

Dialogues

Privately acted (?)

STC 4991

361

Prologue, two epilogues

198.

Anonymous

Swetnam Arraigned by Women

1620

A 1618

Comedy

Queen’s Anne’s

STC 23544

362

Prologue and epilogue

199.

Cumber, John? (or Cobbes, James?)

The Two Merry Milkmaids or The Best Words Wear the Garland

1620

A 1619

Comedy

Red Bull Company (Revels)

STC 4281

364

Prologue

200.

Middleton, Thomas

Rowley, William

The World tossed at tennis

1620

A 1620

Masque

Prince’s men

STC 17909

365

Induction and prologue, epilogue, masque

201.

Markham, G., Sampson, W.

Herod and Antipater

1622

A 1622

Tragedy

Red Bull Company (Revels)

STC 17401

382

Prologue and epilogue

202.

May, Thomas

The Heir

1622

A 1620

Comedy

Red Bull Company (Revels)

STC 17713

384

Prologue and epilogue

203.

Shakespeare, William

The Tempest

1623

collection

A 1611

Comedy

King’s

STC 22273

390

Epilogue

204.

Shakespeare, William

Henry VIII

1623

collection

A 1613

History

King’s

STC 22272

400

Prologue and epilogue

205.

Middleton, Thomas

A Game at Chess

1625

A 1624

Political satire

King’s

STC 17882

412

Induction, prologue and epilogue

206.

Hawkins, W.

Apollo Shroving

1627

A 1627

Comedy

Hadleigh School, Suffolk

STC 12963

414

Introduction , prologue and epilogue

207.

Newman, Thomas

The Andrian Woman

1627

A 1627

Comedy

For acting in schools

STC 23897

415

Prologue and epilogue

208.

Newman, Thomas

The Eunuch

1627

collection

A 1627

Comedy

For acting in schools

STC 23897

416

Prologue and epilogue

209.

Reynolds, Henry

Aminta

1628

A 1628

Pastoral

Closet

STC 23696

417

Chorus at the end of each act, prologue and epilogue

210.

Gomersall, Robert

Lodovick Sforza

1628

A 1628

Tragedy

Not performed

STC 11995

418

Prologue and epilogue

211.

Ford, John

The Lover’s Melancholy

1629

A 1628

Tragicomedy

King’s

STC 11163

420

Prologue and epilogue

212.

Carlell, Lodowick

The Deserving Favourite

1629

A 1629

Comedy

For acting in schools

STC 4628

423

Prologue and epilogue

213.

Shirley, James

The Wedding

1629

A 1626

Comedy

Queen Henrietta’s

STC 22460

425

Epilogue

214.

Randolph, Thomas

Aristippus, or the Jovial Philosopher

1630

A 1626

Comic show Comedy

Trinity College, Cambridge

STC 20686

431

Praeludium

215.

Shirley, James

School of compliment (Love Tricks)

1631

A 1625

Comedy

Lady Elizabeth’s

STC 22456

441

Prologue , conclusion, epilogue

216.

Jonson, Ben

The New Inn

1631

A 1629

Comedy

King’s

STC 14780

442

Prologue , two epilogues

217.

Fletcher, Phineas

Sicelides

1631

A 1615

Piscatory

King’s College, Cambridge

STC 11083

443

Chorus at the end of each act except the first, prologue and epilogue

218.

Heywood, Thomas

1 The Fair Maid of West

1631

A 1604

Comedy

Anne’s (Queen Henrietta’s in 1631)

STC 13320

445

Prologue

219.

Heywood, Thomas

2 The Fair Maid of West

1631

A 1631

Comedy

Queen Henrietta’s

STC 13320

446

Chorus at the end of each act except the first, dumb show at the end of act 3, epilogue

220.

Knevet, Ralph

Rhodon and Iris

1631

A 1631

Pastoral

Florists’ Feast, Norwich

STC 15036

449

Prologue and epilogue

221.

Jonson, Ben

Bartholomew Fair

1631

 A 1614

Comedy

Lady’s Elizabeth’s

STC 14753-5

455

Induction, puppet show

222.

Jonson, Ben

The Staple of News

1631 collection

A 1626

Comedy

King’s

STC 14753-5

456

Induction, prologue for the theatre, prologue for the court, epilogue

223.

Jonson, Ben

The Devil Is an Ass

1631

collection

A 1616

Comedy

King’s

STC 14753-5

457

Prologue and epilogue

224.

Goffe, Thomas

The Courageous Turk

1632

A 1619

Tragedy

Christ Church, Oxford

STC 11977

458

Prologue

225.

Massinger, Philip

The Emperor of the East

1632

A 1631

Tragicomedy

King’s

STC 17636

459

Two prologues and an epilogue

226.

Marmion, Shakerly

Holland’s Leaguer

1632

A 1631

Comedy

Prince’s Charles

STC 17443

461

Prologue

227.

Shirley, James

Changes, or Love in a Maze

1632

A 1632

Comedy

King’s Revels (Prince Charles’s?)

STC

462

Prologue and epilogue

228.

Brome, Richard

The Northern Lass

1632

A 1629

Comedy

King’s

STC 3819

463

Prologue

229.

Hausted, Peter

The Rival Friends

1632

A 1632

Tragicomedy

Queen’s College, Cambridge

STC 12935

465

Introduction, prologue and epilogue

230.

Heywood, Thomas

1 The Iron Age

1632

A 1612

Classical Legend

Queen’s (and King’s?)

STC 13340

467

Epilogue

231.

Randolph, Thomas

The Jealous Lovers

1632

A 1632

Comedy

Trinity College, Cambridge

STC 20692

469

Epilogue in form of a dialogue

232.

Rowley, William

All’s Lost by Lust

1633

A 1619

Tragedy

Prince’s (poi Lady Elizabeth’s)

STC 21425

471

Prologue

233.

Anonymous

The Costly Whire

1633

A 1620

Pseudo-history

Red Bull Company (Revels) (?), King’s Revels (?)

STC 25582

472

Epilogue

234.

Massinger, Philip

A New Way to Pay Old Debts

1633

A 1625

Comedy

Red Bull Company (?) (poi Queen Henrietta’s)

STC 17639

474

Epilogue

235.

Marlowe, Christopher

The Jew of Malta

1633

A 1589

Tragedy

Strange’s (by 1592)

STC 17412

475

Three prologues and an epilogue

236.

Ford, John

The Broken Heart

1633

A 1630

Tragedy

King’s

STC 11156

480

Prologue and epilogue

237.

Marmion, Shackerly

A Fine Companion

1633

A 1633

Comedy

Prince Charles’s

STC 17442

481

Prologue in form of a dialogue (author + critic)

238.

Fisher, Jasper

Fuimus Troes. Æneid 2. The True Troanes

1633

A 1625

History

Magdalene Col. Oxford

STC 10886

482

Induction and conclusion 

239.

Heywood, Thomas

The English Traveller

1633

A 1627

Tragicomedy

Queen Henrietta’s

STC 13315

484

Prologue

240.

Goffe, Thomas

Orestes

1633

A 1617

Tragedy

Christ Church, Oxford

STC 11982

485

Prologue

241.

Greville, Fulke

Alaham

1633

A 1600

Tragedy

Closet

STC 12361

489

Chorus and prologue

242.

Ford, John

Perkin Warbeck

1634

A 1633

History

Queen Henrietta’s

STC 11157

491

Prologue and epilogue

243.

Shakespeare, William e Fletcher, John

The Two Nobles Kinsmen

1634

A 1613

Tragicomedy

King’s

STC 11075

492

Prologue and epilogue

244.

Heywood, Thomas

A Maidenhead well Lost

1634

A 1633

Comedy

Queen Henrietta’s

STC 13357

493

Prologue and epilogue

245.

Rutter, Joseph

The Shepherd’s Holiday

1635

A 1634

Pastoral

Queen Henrietta’s

STC 21470

499

Prologue and epilogue

246.

Jones, John

Adrasta: or the Womans Spleene, and Loves Conquest

1635

A 1635

Tragicomedy

Not performed

STC 14721

501

Induction, including prologue and epilogue

247.

Heywood, Thomas

Love’s Mistress, or The Queen’s Mask

1636

A 1634

Classical Legend

Queen Henrietta’s

STC 13352

504

Three prologues, one epilogue

248.

Davenant, William

The Platonic Lovers

1636

A 1635

Comedy

King’s

STC 6305

506

Prologue and epilogue

249.

Davenant, William

The Wits

1636

A 1634

Comedy

King’s

STC 6309

507

Prologue and epilogue

250.

Dekker, Thomas (& Day, John ?)

The Wonder of a Kingdom

1636

A 1631

Comedy

Queen Henrietta’s

STC 6533

508

Epilogue

251.

Heywood, Thomas

A Challenge for Beauty

1636

A 1635

Tragicomedy

King’s

STC 13311

509

Prologue and epilogue

252.

Sampson, William

The Vow Breaker, or The Fair Maid of Clifton

1636

A 1625

Tragedy and history

Unknown

STC 21688

510

Prologue

253.

Nabbes, Thomas

Hannibal and Scipio

1637

A 1635

Tragedy

Queen’s Henrietta

STC 18341

513

Prologue and epilogue

254.

Fletcher, John (revised by Massinger?)

The Elder Brother

1637

A 1625

Comedy

King’s

STC 11066

515

Prologue and epilogue

255.

Heywood, Thomas (& Smith, Went. ?)

The Royal King and the Loyal Subject

1637

A 1602

Tragicomedy

Worcester’s (?) (Queen Henrietta’s nel1637)

STC 13364

516

Prologue and epilogue

256.

Shirley, James

The Example

1637

A 1634

Comedy

Queen Henrietta’s

STC 22442

521

Prologue and epilogue

257.

Ford, John

The Fancies Chaste and Noble

1638

A 1635

Comedy

Queen Henrietta’s

STC 11159

532

Prologue, epilogue in form of a dialogue

258.

Shirley, H. (& Heywood, Thomas?)

The Martyred Soldier

1638

A 1618

Tragedy

Queen Anne’s (?)

STC 22435

533

Epilogue

259.

Shirley, James

The Duke’s Mistress

1638

A 1636

Tragicomedy

Queen Henrietta’s

STC 22441

536

Prologue and epilogue

260.

Killigrew, Henry

The Conspiracy (Pallantus and Eudora)

1638

A 1635

Tragicomedy

York House (?) & King’s

STC 14958

537

Introduction, chorus at the end of each act, prologue and epilogue

261.

Shirley, James

The Royal Master

1638

A 1637

Comedy

I Ogilby’s Men & Queen’s

STC 22454

538

Epilogue

262.

Cowley, Abraham

Love’s Riddle

1638

A 1633

Pastoral

Not performed

STC 5904

539

Epilogue

263.

Nabbes, Thomas

Tottenham Court

1638

A 1634

Comedy

Prince’s Men, or King’s Revels

STC 18344

540

Prologue and epilogue

264.

Suckling, John

Aglaura

1638

A 1637

Tragedy

King’s

STC 23420

541

Two prologues e two epilogues

265.

Nabbes, Thomas

Covent Garden

1638

A 1633

Comedy

Queen Henrietta’s

STC 18339

542

Prologue and epilogue

266.

Nabbes, Thomas

The Spring’s Glory

1638

A 1637

Mask

Not performed (?)

STC 18343

543

Epilogue

267.

Randolph, Thomas

The Muses Looking‑Glass

1638

collection

A 1630

Comedy

King’s Revels

STC 20694

547

Epilogue

268.

Randolph, Thomas

Amyntas

1638

collection

A 1630

Pastoral

King’s Revels

STC 20694

548

Prologue in form of a dialogue, epilogue

269.

Carlell, Lodowick

1 Arviragus and Philicia

1639

A 1636

Tragicomedy

King’s

STC 4627

551

Prologue and epilogue

270.

Carlell, Lodowick

2 Arviragus and Philicia

1639

A 1636

Tragicomedy

King’s

STC 4627

552

Epilogue

271.

May, Thomas

Julia Agrippina

1639

A 1628

Tragedy

unknown

STC 17718

554

Induction

272.

Ford, John

The Lady’s Trial

1639

A 1638

Comedy

Beeston’s Boys

STC 11161

555

Prologue and epilogue

273.

Zouche, Richard

The Sophister (Fallacy, or The Troubles of Great Hermenia)

1639

A 1614

Moral

Oxford

STC 26133

556

Prologue and epilogue

274.

T. D. (Thomas. Drue?)

The Bloody Banquet

1639

A 1639

Tragedy

Beeston’s Boys

STC 6181

567

Induction (dumb show), chorus

275.

Myne, Jasper

The City Match

1639

A 1637

Comedy

King’s

STC 17750

568

Prologue and epilogue

276.

Lower, William

The Phoenix in her Flames

1639

A 1639

Tragedy

Not performed (?)

STC 16873

569

Prologue and epilogue

277.

Cartwright, William

The Royal Slave

1639

A 1636

Tragicomedy

Christ Church, Oxford

STC 4717

570

Three prologues e three epilogues

278.

Shirley, James

The Chorusnation

1640

A 1635

Comedy

Queen Henrietta’s

STC 22440

572

Prologue and epilogue

279.

Nabbes, Thomas

The Bride

1640

A 1638

Comedy

Beeston’s Boys

STC 18338

576

Prologue

280.

Shirley, James

The Humorous Courtier

1640

A 1631

Comedy

Queen Henrietta’s

STC 22447

577

Prologue and epilogue

281.

Sandys, George

Christ’s Passion

1640

A 1640

Neo-miracle

Closet

STC 12397

579

Chorus at the end of each act except the last one

282.

Gough, John

The Strange Discovery

1640

A 1640

Tragicomedy

Closet

STC 12133

584

Prologue

283.

Jonson, Ben

The Gipsies Metamorphosed

1640

A 1621

Mask

Burley, Belvoir, e Windsor

STC 14777a

585

Prologue

284.

Brome, Richard

The Antipodes

1640

A 1638

Comedy

Queen’s

STC 3818

586

Prologue and epilogue in form of a dialogue

285.

Brome, Richard

The Sparagus Garden

1640

A 1635

Comedy

King’s Revels

STC 3820

587

Prologue and epilogue

286.

Habington, William

The Queen of Aragon

1640

A 1640

Tragicomedy

Amateurs at Court, & King’s

STC 12587

588

Two prologues and one epilogue

287.

Chamberlain, Robert

The Swaggering Damsel

1640

A 1640

Comedy

Beeston’s Boys

STC 4946

589

Prologue

288.

Glapthorne, Henry

The Ladies’ Privilege

1640

A 1637

Tragicomedy

Beeston’s Boys

STC 11910

590

Prologue and epilogue

289.

Glapthorne, Henry

Wit in a Constable

1640

A 1638

Comedy

Beeston’s Boys

STC 11914

591

Prologue and epilogue

290.

Shirley, James

1 Saint Patrick for Ireland

1640

A 1639

Neo-miracle

I Ogilby’s Men, Dublin

STC 22455

593

Prologue and epilogue

291.

Sharpe, Lewis

The Noble Stranger

1640

A 1639

Tragicomedy

Queen’s

STC 22377

597

Prologue and epilogue

292.

Fletcher, John

Rule A wife and Have a Wife

1640

A 1624

Comedy

King’s

STC 11073

598

Prologue and epilogue

293.

Harding, Samuel

Sicily and Naples

1640

A 1640

Tragedy

Not performed

STC 12757

599

Epilogue

294.

Tatham, John

Love Crows the End

1640

collection

A 1632

Pastoral

Bingham School, Nottinghamshire

STC 23704

600

Prologue

295.

Burnell, Henry

Landgartha

1641

A 1640

Tragicomedy

I Ogilby’s Men, Dublin

STC B5751

604

Prologue and epilogue

296.

Brathwait, Richard

Mercurius Britannicus, or the English Intelligencer

1641

A 1641

Latin Political Comedy

Closet

STC B4270

605

Epilogue

297.

Jonson, Ben

The Magnetic Lady

1641

collection

A 1632

Comedy

King’s

STC 14754

616

Induction, chorus at the end of each act. The chorus of act 5 “changed into an epilogue to the King for a court performance”.

298.

Jonson, Ben

A Tale of a Tub

1641

collection

A 1596-1633

Comedy

Admiral’s

STC 14754

617

Prologue and epilogue

299.

Jonson, Ben

The Sad Shepherd

1641

collection

A 1637

Comic pastoral

Not performed

STC 14754

618

Prologue

300.

Denham, John

The Sophy

1642

A 1641

Tragedy

King’s

STC D10009

622

Prologue and epilogue

301.

Fletcher, John

The Noble Gentleman

1647

collection

A 1606

Comedy

King’s

STC B1581

641

Prologue and epilogue

302.

Fletcher, John

The Captain

1647

collection

A 1612

   

STC SB1581

642

Prologue and epilogue

303.

Beaumont Francis

 or N. Field and J. Fletcher (induction by Beaumont or Field)

Four plays in one (for Moral Representations)

1647

A 1613

Moral

Unknown

STC B1581

670

Induction, dumb show, final song, epilogue

304.

Randolph Thomas (revised by ‘T. J.”)

Plutophtalmia Plutogamia

Hey for Honesty, Down with Knavery

1651

A 1627

Comedy

Trinity Col, Cambridge?

A3685

Wing

699

Induction, epilogue and argument

305.

Goffe, Thomas

The Careless

Shepherdess

1656

A 1619

Pastoral

Christ Church, Oxford (?)

G 1005

Wing

761

Induction (praeludium), Masque of Apollo (II,6), epilogue

306.

T. W.

Thorney Abbey

1662

collection

Probably a 17th cent. play with later additions

History

unknown

G 1580

Wing

824

Prelude (Prologue in dialogue form between the Fool and the prompter)

307.

Haughton W. (rev. for press by “I.T.”)

Grim the Collier of Croydon

1662

collection

A 1600

Comedy

Admiral’s?

G1580

Wing

826

Prologue

308.

Wild Robert

The Benefice

1689

 A 1641?

Comedy

Cambridge?

 

836

Induction (act 1)- characters: Shakespeare, Beaumont and Flecther, Comedy- songs, prologue and epilogue

[1] See the appendix for tables that chart the presence of introductory scenes (such as induction, dumb shows, choruses, prologues, epilogues, etc.) in early modern English drama from 1516 to 1642.

[2] Richard Hosley, “Was There a ‘Dramatic Epilogue’ to The Taming of the Shrew?, Studies in English Literature, 1500-1900, 1 (1961), pp. 17-34, p. 21 . On induction in Elizabethan drama, see Thelma Greenfield, The Induction in Elizabethan Drama, Eugene, The University of Oregon Press, 1969.

[3] Alfred Harbage, Annals of English Drama, Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1940.

[4] On dumb show in Elizabethan theatre see Dieter Mehl, The Elizabethan Dumb Show, Cambridge (Mass.), Harvard University Press, 1966.

[5] “These inductions characteristically account for and ‘present’ the plays. They explain why it appears; they sometimes provide onlookers”. (Thelma Greenfield, The Induction in Elizabethan Drama, cit. p. 39).

[6]Ibid., p. 67.

[7] Louise George Clubb, Italian Drama in Shakespeare’s Time, New Haven and London, Yale University Press, 1989, p.5).

[8] Philippe Fabia, Les Prologues de Terence, Ernest Thorin, Paris 1888, and Emilio Goggio, “The Prologue in the Commedie Erudite of the Sixteenth Century”, Italica, 18 (1941) pp. 124-132.

[9]Curculio, Epidicus, Persa e Stichus.

[10]Amphitri, Mercalor, Miles Gloriosus, Mostellaria, Aulularia, Rudens, Trinummus e Cistellaria.

[11]Asinaria, Casina, Captivi, Menoechmi, Poenulus, Pseudolus e Truculentus.

[12] Giovan Battista Giraldi Cinthio, Intorno al comporre delle commedie e delle tragedie (1543), in Commedie del Cinquecento, edited by Aldo Borlenghi, Rizzoli, Milano 1959, vol. I, pp. 1020-1021 (my translation).

[13]Ibid., p. 1021.

[14] The play, begun in 1509, was completed by Ariosto to accomplish Pope Leo X. See Ariosto’s letter to the Pope (16 January 1520) where the dramatist thanks him for having being invited to perform the play for Carnival (Ludovico Ariosto, Opere Minori, edited by Cesare Segre, Milano-Napoli, Ricciardi, 1964, p. 766-7). Eventually, the Pope did not authorize the performance of the play.

[15] Ludovico Ariosto, Opere minori, edited by Luigi Polidori, Firenze, Le Monnier, 1857, vol. II, p. 352.

[16]Ibid., p. 354-355.

[17] Giovanni Francesco Loredano, Lo Incendio, Venezia, 1597, p. 1-3 (my translation).

[18] Ludovico Dolce, Fabritia, Venezia, 1549, pp. 4-7 (my translation).

[19] See Giovanni Della Porta’s La Fantesca (1592), Giovan Battista Cini’s La Vedova (1567), Luigi Alamanni’s La Flora (1555), Giovanni Della Porta’s La Furiosa (1600), Alessandro Piccolomini’s L’Hortensio (1560), La Strega (1546) by Lasca respectively.

[20] Allegorical characters can be found in dumb shows. Thelma Greenfield, who classifies the inductions in four categories (“The inductive dumb show”, “The occasional induction”, “The critical induction” and “The frame play”) identifies allegorical characters in the first three categories (Thelma Greenfield, The Induction in Elizabethan Drama, cit. pp. 23-27, 40-44 e 116-117).

[21] See Willheim Creizenach, The English drama in the age of Shakespeare, London, Sidwick & Jackson, 1916, pp. 276-277. Beyond Creizenach a hundred years ago, no recent critics has analyzed these conventions from the point of view of influence.

[22] Anonymous, A Warning to Fair Women, London 1599, A2r-A3v.

[23] Anonymous, The True Tragedy of Richard III, London 1594, A3v-A4r.

[24] “Hilary was the winter term, Easter the early spring term, Trinity the late spring term. Michaelmas was the autumn term (beginning on 9 October), the first one of the legal year, and the longest). It was also the busiest of the four terms because of the harvest and the end-of-the-year litigations. Country litigants would come to London after bringing in the harvest; the money they earned from it would finance their lawsuit. (Michael Taylor, “Notes”, in Thomas Middleton, A Mad World, My Master and other plays, edited by Michael Taylor, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1995, p. 318).

[25] Thomas Middleton, Michaelmas Term (1604), in edited by Theodore B. Leinwand, in The Collected Works, edited by Gary Taylor and John Lavagnino, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 2007, p. 338.

[26] Ben Jonson, Every Man Out of His Humour, London 1600, B4r.

[27]Ibid., B4v.

[28] Marvin T. Herrick, Italian comedy in the Renaissance, Urbana, Illinois University Press, 1960, p. 137.

[29] On University Drama, see Frederick S. Boas, University drama in the Tudor age, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1914; George C. Moore Smith, College plays performed in the university of Cambridge, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1923.

[30] See Fernando Cioni, Stages at the University of Cambridge in Tudor England, in English Renaissance Scenes, edited by Paola Pugliatti and Alessandro Serpieri, Oxford, Peter Lang, 2006, pp. 127-154.

[31] The manuscript, housed in the Lambeth Library (London), was reproduced by Horst-Dieter Blume for the series Renaissance Latin Drama in England, Georg Olms Verlag, Hildesheim 1991.

[32] Anonymous, Laelia, edited by George C. Moore Smith, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1910, p. 3, v. 3.

[33]Ibid., p. 92 vv. 78 e 81-83.

[34] The text of the play was transcribed by Frederick S. Boas in The Christmas Prince, The Malone Society reprints, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1922, pp. 56-101.

[35] The manuscripts of William Percy’s plays are housed in the Huntington Library, San Marino (California). Percy’s plays, even if probably not meant to be performed, reveal interesting evidences of Elizabethn stage practice. See Harold N. Hillebrand, “William Percy: An Elizabethan Amateur”, in The Huntington Library Quarterly 1 (1938), pp. 391-416.

[36] The tragedy is extant in a manuscript housed in St. John’s College Library at Oxford. Frederick S. Boas transcribed the text in The Christmas Prince, cit., pp. 229-287.

[37]Ibid., p. 231.

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